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2021年8月26日 (木)

レーダー用マイクロ波で溶けたのはチョコバーではなくpeanut butter candy barだった?

 ネットニュースで以下の記事を見かけました。

  @niftyニュース
  米国ハリス副大統領のアジア訪問に「ハバナ症候群」攻撃か?=2016年以降、原因不明の脳損傷
  2021年08月25日 08時57分 WoW!Korea
  https://news.nifty.com/article/world/korea/12211-1212720/

 「ハバナ症候群」にも興味がありますが、今回はそこでは無くて、以下の記載が気になりました。
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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欧米で「マイクロウェーブ・オーブン」と呼ばれる電子レンジの原理が発見されたのも、旧ソ連で事故によるものだった。
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 「旧ソ連で事故によるもの」というのは何でしょうか?
 一般に知られている情報とはかなり異なっています。
 「事故による」は"by accident"の訳かもしれませんが、「旧ソ連」はどこから出てきたのでしょうか?
 好奇心で一寸調べて見ましたが、「旧ソ連」の出所はよく判りませんでした。
 その代わり、我々が知っている溶けたチョコレートの話は間違いであるという情報を見かけました。

 以下の資料を見ると、どうもチョコレートではなくて、peanut butter candy barあるいはpeanut cluster barだったようです。
 高融点でない普通のチョコレートの場合には、チョコレートをポケットに入れておくと、レーダー波が無くても体温で溶ける可能性があるので、話としてはキャンディバーの方が筋が通るかもしれません。
 INSIDERとPopular Mechanicsの記事を読むと、何となく当時の様子が想像できますが、いま考えると安全性に問題がある作業環境(電磁波被曝)だったように思われます。

 

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電子レンジ - Wikipedia
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E3%83%AC%E3%83%B3%E3%82%B8
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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・1945年に、アメリカ合衆国のレイセオン社で働いていたレーダー設置担当の技師、パーシー・スペンサーによって発明された。
・マグネトロンの前に立った彼のポケットの中のチョコバーが溶けていたことを偶然発見した
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[チョコバー]

 

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Microwave oven - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_oven
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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American engineer Percy Spencer is generally credited with inventing the modern microwave oven after World War II from radar technology developed during the war. Named the "Radarange", it was first sold in 1946.

In 1945, the heating effect of a high-power microwave beam was accidentally discovered by Percy Spencer, an American self-taught engineer from Howland, Maine. Employed by Raytheon at the time, he noticed that microwaves from an active radar set he was working on started to melt a chocolate bar he had in his pocket.
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[chocolate bar]

 

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Live Science
Who Invented the Microwave Oven?
https://www.livescience.com/57405-who-invented-microwave-oven.html
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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Spencer was testing a magnetron when he noticed that the chocolate bar in his pocket had melted, according to Raytheon’s company history.
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[chocolate bar]

 

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Microwave Ovens
http://ethw.org/Microwave_Ovens
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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The first microwave ovens were developed around 1946, when in a bit of serendipity, engineer Percy LeBaron Spencer noticed that microwave communication equipment could be used to heat foods. Spencer had a chocolate bar in his pocket and noticed (no doubt messily) that the candy melted when he was near some microwave equipment. Quickly coming to the conclusion that other types of food could be heated that way, the Raytheon Company, Spencer’s employer, filed the first patents for a microwave oven later that year.
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[chocolate bar],[candy]

 

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Melted Chocolate to Microwave
https://www.technologyreview.com/1999/01/01/236818/melted-chocolate-to-microwave/
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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Raytheon credits the discovery of microwave cooking to a grade-school-educated engineer named Percy L. Spencer. One day in 1945, Spencer was walking through a radar test room with a chocolate bar in his pocket; he came too close to a running magnetron tube and the candy began to melt.
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[chocolate bar],[candy]

 

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IEEE Spectrum
A History of the Microwave Oven
The popular appliance resulted from a chance discovery in the 1940s
https://spectrum.ieee.org/a-history-of-the-microwave-oven
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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Melted chocolate in a scientist’s pocket in 1946 led to the development of an appliance that changed the way many of us cook our meals today. Percy L. Spencer, a researcher at Raytheon in Waltham, Mass., was testing communications equipment when he noticed that his candy bar heated up when he stood near a magnetron, a vacuum tube that produces microwave energy.
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[chocolate],[candy bar]

 

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Microwave Oven
https://www.smecc.org/microwave_oven.htm
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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In 1946, the engineer Dr. Percy LeBaron Spencer, who worked for the Raytheon Corporation, was working on magnetrons. One day at work, he had a candy bar in his pocket, and found that it had melted. He realized that the microwaves he was working with had caused it to melt. After experimenting, he realized that microwaves would cook foods quickly - even faster than conventional ovens that cook with heat.
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[candy bar]

 

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IBusiness Insider
How the microwave was invented by a radar engineer who accidentally cooked a candy bar in his pocket
Steven Tweedie Jul 4, 2015, 12:00 AM
https://www.businessinsider.com/how-the-microwave-oven-was-invented-by-accident-2015-4
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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In 1945, Percy Spencer, an American self-taught engineer, was working in a lab testing magnetrons, the high-powered vacuum tubes inside radars. One day while working near the magnetrons that produced microwaves, Spencer noticed a peanut butter candy bar in his pocket had begun to melt — shortly after, the microwave oven was born.

"My grandfather was watching a microwave testing rig, and he realized that the peanut-cluster bar in his pocket started to melt — it got quite warm," Rod Spencer, inventor and grandson of Percy Spencer, told Business Insider.
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[peanut butter candy bar],[peanut-cluster bar]

 

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Popular Mechanics
The Amazing True Story of How the Microwave Was Invented by Accident
BY MATT BLITZ
FEB 24, 2016
https://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/a19567/how-the-microwave-was-invented-by-accident/
(以下、上記URLから抜粋引用)
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The Snack
A story this good can't help but change as it's passed down over the years. Some tellings of the legend say it was a melted chocolate bar that led to Spencer's eureka. But if you ask Rod Spencer today, he'll tell you that's dead wrong.

"He loved nature (due to his childhood in Maine)... especially his little friends the squirrels and the chipmunks," the younger Spencer says of his grandfather, "so he would always carry a peanut cluster bar in his pocket to break up and feed them during lunch." This is an important distinction, and not just for the sake of accurate storytelling. Chocolate melts at a much lower temperature (about 80 degrees Fahrenheit) which means melting a peanut cluster bar with microwaves was much more remarkable.
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[peanut cluster bar]

 

 

【参考外部リンク】
Havana syndrome
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Havana_syndrome

Moscow Signal
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow_Signal

電子レンジの心臓部であるマグネトロンの分解
http://abcdefg.jpn.org/elebunkai/magnetron/cc.html

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